Thursday, April 23, 2015

Scots-Irish DNA Project Update 23 April 2015

For members interested in a case study of a Family Tree DNA family project that located their cousins in Ulster and eventually located their progenitor in Argyll, Scotland, we suggest the new book  'Finding the McCains'  (on Amazon).   The book shows how a Y-DNA match group can be used to focus research on specific geographic area and the use of the primary sources there.  It is a familiar tale to many researchers.  A 40 year search for family history, the brick wall, then the DNA testing with dramatic results.  It can be a complex task, but it can be done and 'Finding the McCains' is an excellent example of how one Ulster family accomplished this.  The McCains include Senator John McCain, the Canadian family of Wallace and Harrison McCain of New Brunswick, and James McKeen, co-leader of the 1718 Ulster fleet that began the Ulster migration.

I have received several emails concerning ‘genetic convergence’  which can produce a false match:  There was a rapid population expansion in the last 4000-5000 years and some of the lineages within R1b1a2 have experienced convergence of STR values.  This is due to the random mutation process. Some of the more distant lineages have moved closer together producing coincidental matching haplotypes.  This phenomenon is called “convergence” (also known as evolutionary convergence) is the term we use in genetic genealogy to describe the process when two different haplotypes mutate over time to become identical or near identical resulting in an coincidental match. Coincidental matches will often be in different subclades and the common ancestor will have lived several thousand years ago rather than within a genealogical timeframe.   A convergence can produce a “false positive" match.


This is one reason we recommend you test at least 67 markers.  There has been only one case of a convergence match at this level.  The 111 marker level is the best test to filter out any possible convergence match.  This is particularly important for participants Ulster and Scottish ancestry, because surnames were often not fixed until very late, circa 1500 to 1700.  In many cases your non-surname matches are just important as your surname matches, but only if they are bona fide matches.  In our geographic area many clans and families used different surnames as these groups followed patronymic naming customs.  An example of this: a Mac Dónaill family circa 1520 has an illustrious son named Alastair and by 1570 his line uses the surname Mac Alastair.  When a descendant tests he will find anglicized forms of both Mac Dónaill and Mac Alastair present in his match group.  In this example the match group could contain numerous anglicized forms, Alexander, Alastair, Daniels, Donaldson, McDaniels, McDonald, McDonnell, etc.
 
Address for our blog below; news of the project is posted there.    Best of luck with your genetic genealogy project.

 

http://thescotsirish.blogspot.com/  (The Scots-Irish Blog)

--
McCain's Corner:    http://barryrmccain.blogspot.com/
Ulster Heritage:  http://uhblog.ulsterheritage.com/p/books.html
Barry R McCain website:   http://www.barryrmccain.com/


Monday, April 6, 2015

Ulster Heritage Magazine: Books

Ulster Heritage Magazine: Books: Finding the McCains Finding the McCains , is an account of a man’s 40 year odyssey to find the McCain family in Ireland.   Senator Jo...

Monday, March 30, 2015

McCain's Corner: Irish and Scottish Clan Surnames

McCain's Corner: Irish and Scottish Clan Surnames: Clan Surnames     Many people with Gaelic origin surnames are interested in researching their clan connections. This is cannot be...

Sunday, March 29, 2015

Sunday, March 1, 2015

The Kilt and the Scots-Irish

(note many Scots-Irish are of Argyll and Lennox ancestry, areas where the kilt was worn.  Of interest, the first detailed record of the kilt in use is from Ireland; an account of Redshanks arrived in 1596)


Is the kilt Irish…. was the kilt ever worn in Ireland? The answer to this question is a very simple yes, of course, but even simple answers need some explanation. The kilt comes in two forms, the filleadh beag and the filleadh mór. The wearing of kilts came into fashion in the Hebrides and Highlands of Scotland sometime during the late 1500s. Prior to the popularsation of the kilt most Isles and Highlanders dressed identical to the native Irish in a léine and short jacket.

Liam Neeson portraying Rob Roy wearing the large kilt, of filleadh mór

Why the kilt came into fashion can only be speculated on, perhaps it was the changing climate, which was growing colder in the late 1500s and the full kilt offered warmth, or perhaps it was improved small looms that could produce more woolen cloth, or perhaps just a fashion trend indigenous to the Gaels of Scotland. For whatever reason, the kilt became popular and fashionable among Gaels in certain parts of Scotland and would be brought to Ireland by Scottish Gaels that settled there in the late 1500s.

The filleadh mór is comprised of a very long piece of material called a plaid, which is belted in the middle. The upper part could be arranged in various ways depending upon the temperature of the day. The part below the belt was folded in the back to make pleats and came down to the knees.

There is a pseudo history about the creation of the smaller kilt, the filleadh beag, which is the form of kilt still very much in use today. At some point prior to 1690s, Gaelic tailors began to cut the filleadh mór in half. It was an organic fashion development within the Scottish Gaelic community. The upper part became a separate plaid and the lower part had the folds sown into it. This way the lower half, the kilt, could be worn separately from the plaid.


Sean Connery wearing the small kilt, or filleadh beag

A false story has long circulated about the creation of the small kilt that maintained two English tailors invented this form in 1727. However, in Gaelic oral history it was known that the small kilt predates this time. The English creation myth persisted in some circles until writer Clifford Smyth produced an illustration of the small kilt in use in 1690 and put an end to the pseudo history of the small kilt.



18th Century illustration on how to wear the kilt

In Ireland the full kilt and small kilt were worn in those areas settled by Highland and Hebridean Gaels. There are eyewitness descriptions of the kilt being worn as early as the 1590s in Ulster. Originally it was worn in the Redshank communities in east Donegal, northwest Tyrone, and north Antrim. Its popularity has waxed and waned over the years, but more and more the small kilt can be seen in Ireland worn at weddings and parties, by hill walkers, and sportsmen. This growing popularity of this very old Gaelic garment is natural and part of the heritage of Ulster.

Thursday, February 26, 2015

Finding the McCains

The remarkable story of the McCain family from Ulster, their ranks include James McKeen, co-leader of the 1718 fleet and first magistrate of the Londonderry, NH, settlement, Wallace and Harrison McCain of McCain Foods, Ltd., Admiral John Sydney (Slew) McCain, and Senator John McCain.

Finding the McCains






Finding the McCains, is an account of a man’s 40 year odyssey to find the McCain family in Ireland.  Senator John McCain and his cousin, novelist Elizabeth Spencer, both include a short history of the McCain family in their respective memoirs Faith of our Fathers and Landscapes of the Heart.  Their history is a romantic tale of Highland Scots who supported Mary Queen of Scots and who fled to Ireland after her downfall in 1568.  The search for the McCains became a mystery story with clues, false turns, many adventures, and then ultimate success through Y chromosome DNA testing.  In 2008 the McCains were reunited with their family that remained in Ireland, after 289 years of separation.

The McCain history includes people and events familiar to readers of Irish and Scottish history; Redshanks, Iníon Dubh, Mary Queen of Scots, the Earls of Argyll, the Ulster Migration, and the Scots-Irish, are all part of this family’s history.  Faint memories of this past were told for generations in Mississippi and as the research progressed the facts behind these memories were uncovered. 

The Y chromosome DNA results revealed that the McCains of Mississippi, which include Senator John McCain’s family, are the same family of Wallace and Harrison McCain, the founders of Canada’s McCain Foods, one of the most successful corporations in the world.  They are also the same family as James McKeen who organized the 1718 fleet that began the great Ulster Migration to the English Colonies.  All these families are paternally related and they all descend from one Gaelic man named Mac Eáin that lived in Kilmichael Glassary parish, in mid Argyll, in the Scottish Highlands, in the 1400s.

The book tells of the author’s many trips to Ireland in search of his distant cousins there.  There are anecdotal stories, some humorous and others involving “famous” people; such as, Phil Robertson of Duck Dynasty, Mary Coughlan (Irish Tainste or vice president), Cindy McCain (wife of Senator McCain), Seán Mac Stiofáin (1970s head of the IRA) , Alan Heusaff (WW II German officer in Dublin who later became president of the Celtic League), and Muhammad Ali.  There is even an encounter with a Bean Sí (faerie woman) on the windy cold hill of megalithic stone ruins at Loch an Craoibh.  All presented from the perspective of a native Mississippian.

Another theme in the book is the Scots-Irish.  Contemporary histories about the Scots-Irish present stereotyped and romanticized accounts of this dynamic group.  Finding the McCains reveals a more complex history and shows the cultural conflation common in Scots-Irish popular history.

Finding the McCains is an excellent read for all interested in Irish and Scottish history and is an how-to guide for those interested in how-to guide for those who would like to use genetic genealogy to locate their family in the old country and recover lost family history.

To purchase from Amazon: Finding the McCains

To purchase from Ulster Heritage directly send US $20 (postage paid) to:
Ulster Heritage
PO Box 884
Oxford MS 38655
USA 

Wednesday, February 18, 2015

Haplogroup R-S1051 Project

(Many Scots-Irish are in R-S1051 haplogroup.  A lot of research going on with this haplogroup; they appear to be indigenous to central Scotland.  Those men that have the R-S1051 haplogroup are encouraged to participate in the research.  One can join by using your 'manage projects' link on your Family Tree DNA page.)


Recently many new SNP's have been discovered for this unique haplogroup which is located below DF13.

The majority of this family group have 5 main Patriarch SNP's (S1051, FGC9655, FGC9661, FGC9658 and FGC9657). The current age estimate for these Patriarch SNP's is approximately 3,200 to 4,500 years old and likely originated within what is known as the Bell Beaker culture. When examining other haplogroups of a similar age the S1051 people are very few by comparison
.
Evidence suggests that the geographic origin of this family group could have been from what is now modern Scotland.
https://www.familytreedna.com/public/R-S1051/default.aspx?section=results
 S1051 Project SNP results spreadsheet page 1 of 2.  
 https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1E1iiiFeUgXGA-Trg_whSqbK_sTZI5csja4dRFWZ5-bE/edit?usp=sharing 
S1051 Project SNP results spreadsheet page 2 of 2 - FGC17906+
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1YsOmg_EaoSh3QVKn9u_216ZtN3nI8LO5-NRA5Oscg4s/edit?usp=sharing

On the above spreadsheet links I've placed "SNP dates" which are an approximation as these mutation rates can vary. So far on average there is 1 Sanger SNP verified per 139 years so it's important to stress that these dates could change slightly as more research needs to be completed. There are instances like the single defining McCeney SNP which likely exceeds 200 years since it's mutation and other examples which were fewer than 139 years. Other factors to consider are the number of SNP's captured from the various sequencing types and the number of raw SNP's which are culled due to reliability issues. The age estimate 139 years per SNP was calculated by using known genealogy, full Y testing, Sanger verification, STR calculations and averaging the number of raw SNP's located below DF13. It's also important to understand that chronology of many of the SNP's (including the 5 main oldest ones) are still unknown.
The following link is to a 64 page paper written by Ronald Henderson that I recently discovered online. Although some concepts found within may stir debate within the historical or scientific community I believe it was well written and worth adding to project page.
http://www.thesonsofscotland.co.uk/Rex%20Pictorum.pdf



Link: R-S1051 Project

Monday, February 16, 2015

Native Tribes of Britain

The majority of the Scots-Irish are descendants of the native Celtic tribes of north Britain.  Here is a link to an article on the BBC History website showing the location and names of these early Celtic tribes.

Link:  Native Tribes of Britain

Tuesday, February 3, 2015

The Tweedy Family: Tweedys in Scotland and Ireland

The Tweedy Family: Tweedys in Scotland and Ireland: We need Tweedys (by any spelling) to participate in DNA testing.  Our goals are to locate the Tweedy family in Scotland and Ireland and reco...

Wednesday, January 28, 2015

The Highland Scots in West Ulster

Amazon is running a sale on the book 'The Laggan Redshanks.'  The sale price is only US $13.46.  The book tells the fascinating story of the Highland Scottish migration to Donegal in the 1500s.  Many of these Highlanders migrated to the Colonies in the 1700s and became 'Scots-Irish.' 



In the sixteenth century Scottish Highlanders settled in the Laggan district of east Donegal. They were called Redshanks. The history of the Laggan Redshanks has many fascinating elements which include Clann Chaimbeul and their dynamic leader the fifth Earl of Argyll, Gaelic sexual intrigues, English Machiavellian manoeuvres, and the Redshanks themselves. This book not only tells the fascinating story of how a Highland Scottish community became established in the Laggan, but also includes the surnames of the Redshanks and notes of their origins in Scotland, which will be of interest to family historians and genealogists.


Link to purchase:  The Laggan Redshanks

Saturday, January 10, 2015

Scots-Irish, Genetically Speaking

The Scots-Irish were descendants of Scottish settlers in Ireland.  Many of these Scottish settlers were in turn descendants of Lowland Scots that settled in Ulster circa 1609 to the early 1700s.  Others were descendants of Highland Scots from Argyll, the southern Hebrides, and Lennox, that settled in Ulster during the 1500s.  Both of these groups in turn were the descendants of the various Celtic groups indigenous to what is now Scotland.  Recent DNA testing has revealed that the dominated DNA haplogroups of the Scots-Irish are R-M222 and R-L21.  Below are illustrations that show the geographic locations of these two haplogroups.


map showing highest concentration of R-M222


maps showing highest concentration of R-L21

Monday, November 17, 2014

Tim Clarkson & Viking Age Strathclyde


Tim Clarkson's new book on Viking Age Strathclyde  is now available and highly recommended. 

Strathclyde and the Anglo-Saxons in the Viking Age traces the history of relations between the Cumbri or North Britons and their English neighbours through the eighth to eleventh centuries AD. It looks at the wars, treaties and other high-level dealings that characterised this volatile relationship. Woven into the story are the policies and ambitions of other powers, most notably the Scots and Vikings, with whom both the North Britons and Anglo-Saxons were variously in alliance or at war.
As well as presenting a narrative history of the kingdom of Strathclyde, this book also discusses the names ‘Cumbria’ and ‘Cumberland’, both of which now refer to parts of north-west England. The origins of these names, and their meanings to people who lived in Viking-Age Britain, are examined and explained.

The book’s main contents are as follows:
Chapter 1 – Cumbrians and Anglo-Saxons
A discussion of terminology and sources.
Chapter 2 – Early Contacts
Relations between the Clyde Britons and the English in pre-Viking times (sixth to eighth centuries AD).
Chapter 3 – Raiders and Settlers
The arrival of the Vikings in northern Britain, the destruction of Alt Clut and the beginning of the kingdom of Strathclyde or Cumbria.
Chapter 4 – Strathclyde and Wessex
Contacts between the ‘kings of the Cumbrians’ and the family of Alfred the Great.
Chapter 5 – Athelstan
The period 924 to 939 in which the ambitions of a powerful English king clashed with those of his Celtic and Scandinavian neighbours. Includes a discussion of the Battle of Brunanburh.
Chapter 6 – King Dunmail
The reign of Dyfnwal, king of Strathclyde (c.940-970) and the English invasion of ‘Cumberland’ in 945.
Chapter 7 – The Late Tenth Century
Strathclyde’s relations with the kings of England in the last decades of the first millennium.
Chapter 8 – Borderlands
The earls of Bamburgh and their dealings with the kings of Alba and Strathclyde. Includes a discussion of the Battle of Carham (1018).
Chapter 9 – The Fall of Strathclyde
The shadowy period around the mid-eleventh century when the last kingdom of the North Britons was finally conquered.
Chapter 10 – The Anglo-Norman Period
Anglo-Scottish relations in the early twelfth century and the origin of the English county of Cumberland.
Chapter 11 – Conclusions
Notes for each chapter direct the reader to a bibliography of primary and secondary sources. Illustrations include maps, photographs and genealogical tables.
Published by Birlinn of Edinburgh, under the John Donald imprint, and available from Amazon UK and Amazon USA.

Monday, October 27, 2014

The Cracker


Cracker Cattle


What is the etymology of the term Cracker?  We all know what a Cracker was (or is).  A Southern Anglo-Celt, usually of Scots-Irish origin, who lives in the backcountry.   The term appears intact and in use by the mid-1700s in Colonial America.  One eighteenth-century definition of what a Cracker provides a good description; in 1776 a Colonial official wrote to the earl of Dartmouth:

I should explain to your Lordship what is meant by Crackers, a name they have got from being great boasters; they are a lawless set of rascals on the frontiers of Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia, who often change their place of abode.
They were basically a semi nomadic group who were excellent hunters, kept free range cattle and pigs, and lived in the backcountry.  They were normally of Ulster ancestry, but not exclusively so.

Cracker is still a much used term.  Dubious sources, such as Wikipedia, tell us it is a “usually derogatory term for white people.” Wikipedia also offers a proposed etymology of the term coming from the sound of the “whips” used by Southern whites on their livestock.
The real story is more complex.  It is term with links to Ulster and associated with the people we know as the Scots-Irish.  The original Crackers are also associated with free range cattle and lived in the backcountry.  That much is on firm ground, but the etymology is more difficult to deduce, but I believe is also linked to Ulster.  There are several possible origins, which I will not list and state each one’s case. 
Creachadóir:  This is the word I believe is the actual origin of Cracker. It is Ulster Gaelic and Scots Gaelic (Creachadair) word meaning, “raider and freebooter,” but also associated with the free range cattle drovers in Ulster.  In short, I think Cracker is the anglicised form of Creachadóir. 

Creach: (Ulster Gaelic) means a “herd of cattle,” and also a “Cattle raid.”   You will also find the word Greigh in Scot Gaelic meaning a “herd of cattle.”   There is also the Scots-Gaelic word Gréighear meaning a “farm grieve.”  (someone who took care of livestock) 
Other possible etymologies:

Cracaire: This word means “talker” or a person that chats a lot and is related to the modern Irish word “Craic” meaning “a gathering where people talk, have refreshments, and have a good time.”  As far as I can tell, the use of Cracaire and Craic are more recent in their use in the Gaelic language and I do not think this is the etymology of Cracker, but it is a debatable point.    

I think the salient element is the linking of Crackers to cattle.  Creach was anglicised as Creacht and was used from the mid-1500s into the early 1800s to describe both a herd of cattle and the drovers (cowboys) of the herd.  These men were also used for raiding parties.  So in actual use a Creacht was both a free range cowboy and raider and freebooter. In modern Gaelic usage the older meaning of free range cowboy has been dropped and now the definition is “raider and freebooter, ” but it was the same thing, or person, in a historical context.  So, in Ulster, we have the word Creach and Creacht in use in both Hiberno-English and Gaelic and meaning exactly what the Southern Crackers were.  Given the fact that the Crackers were from Ulster and were free range cowboys the Creach, Creacht, and Creachadóir, origin from Cracker is logical.
A Cracker Cowboy by Frederic Remington
The anglicised form may be from Creachadóir or it could be from Creach and anglicised from adding an English suffix of “er.”   I think however, the former more likely. 

So, the likely etymology of Cracker is from the Ulster and Scots Gaelic word Creachadóir.  For the record, Cracker is not considered derogatory among the Crackers living in the South today.  The opposite is true, it is an often used term of ethnic self-description and is a source of pride.  It means you are indigenous to the South, ancestors from Ulster or northwest Britain, have roots in the Uplands or Backcountry, are independent, self-reliant, you act in an honorable way, are good with weapons, hunting, fishing, and are man that knows how to do things.  As the Southern Crackers settled Texas and the Southwest they became the Cowboy, a cultural continuum of their unique lifestyle.   
Cowboy 1888

Thursday, October 23, 2014

AncestryDNA and 23andMe (V3) transfer offer from Family Tree

(additional information of the transfer offer from Family Tree to people who test with AncestryDNA and 23andMe)

Family Tree DNA is now allowing people that have taken an AncestryDNA™ or 23andMe© (V3) test to transfer their raw data to the Family Finder database for FREE by visiting www.familytreedna.com/AutosomalTransfer!
 
That’s right!  Pass this news along to your friends and family members that have tested with Ancestry.com or 23andMe so they can discover new matches in the world’s largest genetic genealogy database for FREE!  
 
Note: Autosomal raw data cannot be transferred to an account that already has Family Finder
 
What’s in it for You?
After transferring, you’ll get your top 20 matches, complete with their surnames and relationship predictions.  You don’t have to do anything after uploading your data to see these matches.  You’ve got nothing to lose!

You can unlock ALL of your matches and myOrigins results for free by recruiting 4 other relatives or friends to transfer their results using a link we’ll provide!

Unlock Right Away for Just $39
If you do not want to wait for 4 others to transfer, we are also permanently reducing the price to unlock all of your matches and myOrigins results to just $39!  
 
Once a transfer has purchased or referred 4 others they will unlock the full Family Finder experience!
 
How Does it Work?
New customers must enter their name and email address to get started.  If you already have an FTDNA account, just click Already have a Family Tree DNA account?

Next, click ‘Upload Raw Data’ to select and upload the raw data file from AncestryDNA™ or 23andMe© (V3) from your computer.  It is not necessary to unzip the file prior to uploading it.  If you don’t have your raw data file handy, instructions on how to download it will be available.

The first round of results processing will take about an hour and an email notification will be sent to the registered email address after we are done processing the raw data.

Ulster Heritage Magazine: Transfer your 23andMe©(V3) or AncestryDNA™

Family Tree DNA is offering free transfers from 23andMe and AncestryDNA.  This is an excellent opportunity to upload your existed data into Family Tree's data base. 

Link:  23andMeV3 and AncestryDNA Transfers



Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Scots-Irish DNA Project Update 21 October 2014

Scots-Irish DNA project update 21 October 2014

The Scots-Irish DNA project has 504 participants as of this date.  Family Tree has added many new haplogroups and our project is now updated to include this.  The many new haplogroups are downstream from the major designations and represent more recent genetic mutations.  Many of the new haplogroups are linked to geographic locations.  The research is so new it is hard to post news of them as the data is still coming in.  But, eventually, those participants that have done extensive SNP testing should gain a much better understanding of their family's point of origin.

Some notes: non-surname matches are very important at the 67 and 111 levels.  In parts of Scotland surnames were not fixed until the 1600s and creation of new surnames from nicknames, aliases, or clan based surnames was common.  I have even observed several adoption of maternal surnames in paternal lines that married prominent women from another clan.  An example of a nickname being turned into a surname, Seamus Mac Dónaill Glass (the grey McDonald) living early 1700s and his sons just being known as the 'Gray' family.

One key to successful family research is observing geographic clues.  Look at the "Paternal Ancestor Names" of your match group for any geographic information.  The reason this is some important, families were in general very static and tending to stay in the same area of centuries.  Even among the Ulster Scots, this would be true in Scotland and then after migration to Ireland, they tended to stay in the district they initially settled. This pattern changed after the industrial age, but still there is general a cluster of matches where the family initially settled.

If you locate a geographic point of interest, you will want to look at the primary sources for that area.  Often you will find your surname, or some variation of it, at that location.  Some very good records for Scots-Irish families are the 1630 and 1642 muster rolls.  There function as a type a census as each family was expected to have their able bodied men report to the muster.
 
I also would ask everyone to go on your Family Tree page in enter your Paternal Ancestor Data. Make sure it is your direct paternal line (we have some that have enter maternal lines, again, the Y chromosome follows a man's direct paternal line, it is only passed from father to son, it cannot go through a maternal line).
 
If you are interested in your "Ancestral Origins"  make sure you have your 12 and 25 level results turned on.  This will show you your distant match group by geographic location.  The higher the percentage the greater the relevance.   Most of the Scots-Irish participants are descendants of the Insular Celts, these are the indigenous Celtic tribes of both Highland and Lowland Scotland.  We do have a fair number of Norse/Norman participants, and the a few haplogroups that are associated with parts of Europe that suggest a Roman Empire connection or in some cases medieval trading families.
 
For those of you with Highland Scot origin, Amazon has the Ulster Heritage book 'The Laggan Redshanks' on sale at present.  This book concerns the Highland Scots that settled in east Donegal and northwest Tyrone in the late 1500s.  We hope to get out a similar book on the Highland Scots that settled in north Antrim, which is the other major source of Highland Scots, or Redshanks as they were called, in Ulster.
Our blog address is:
http://thescotsirish.blogspot.com/  (The Scots-Irish Blog)

Anyone that has a family history update, interesting Scots-Irish news, and short articles on Scots-Irish people, society, culture, food, etc., are urged to submit to the blog.  You may also post news of your own personal Family Tree surname project.  It is an excellent way to get the word out and encourage men with your surname to test.  Many of our participating families have located their cousins in Ireland and Scotland by "getting the word out."
 
The best of luck with your research. 

 

Monday, October 13, 2014

R-L21 Haplogroup and the Scots-Irish

 
Above is a map showing the location of the R-L21 Haplogroup.  R-L21 Haplogroup and the growing number of downstream (more recent in chronology) is the haplogroup of the majority of the Scots-Irish.  Historically it represents the 'Western Atlantic Celtic' population, which includes the Insular Celts, both Gaelic and Cumbric.   In layman's language, this population has it origins in the indigenous Celtic tribes of Britain and Ireland.  Within the Scots-Irish population this includes the native Cumbric Celtic tribes of what we now call the Scottish Lowlands, and the Gaelic population.  This tells us the majority of the people in the New World that identify as 'Scots-Irish' are the descendants of the indigenous Celts of the British Isles and Ireland.  (map is from the Eupedia website)

Wednesday, October 8, 2014

Tuesday, October 7, 2014

John Steinbeck and his Scots-Irish mother

Many families married into the Scots-Irish.  German families in the Upland and backwood South often became part of Scots-Irish society.  Here is a link to an article on John Steinbeck with information of his Scots-Irish mother. 

Link:  Okie Faces & Irish Eyes: John Steinbeck & Route 66 (From Irish America Magazine)

Friday, October 3, 2014

Texian Militia 1835


The Battle of Gonzales 2 October 1835


The Battle of Gonzales was fought near Gonzales, Texas, on 2 October 1835, between Texian settlers and a detachment of Mexican army troops. It was the first battle of the Texas War for Independence.  The majority of the Texians were Scots-Irish who had moved to Texas from Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama.

In 1831, Mexican authorities gave the settlers of Gonzales a small cannon to help protect them from frequent Comanche raids. During the ensuing four years, the political situation in Mexico deteriorated and in 1835 several states, including Texas, revolted.  Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea, the commander of all Mexican troops in Texas, requested the return of the cannon.

Design of the original Gozales flag

This request was refused and Ugartechea sent 100 dragoons to retrieve the cannon. The soldiers neared Gonzales on 29 September. The colonists negotiated with the Mexican troops but also sent messengers to request help from nearby communities. Within two days, up to 140 Texians gathered in Gonzales. On 1 October 1835, the Texian militia voted to fight rather than surrender their cannon.  The Texian militia was led by John Henry Moore, originally of Rome, Tennessee, who had settled in Texas in 1818.  Mexican soldiers opened fire as Texians approached their camp in the early hours of October 2.  The two sides exchanged fire for several hours, after which the Mexican troops retreated.

The skirmish marked a clear break between the colonists and the Mexican government and is considered to have been the start of the Texas Revolution. News of the skirmish spread throughout the United States, where it was often referred to as the "Lexington of Texas".

Modern version of the Gozales flag, still in use


Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Families in Londonderry, 1619-1800

SCOTS-IRISH ORIGINS, 1600-1800A.D.
GENEALOGICAL GLEANINGS OF THE SCOTS-IRISH IN COUNTY LONDONDERRY, IRELAND
PART THREE - ‘THE MAIDEN CITY’
THE INHABITANTS OF THE CITY OF DERRY / LONDONDERRY BEFORE THE SIEGE (c.1600-1688)


By Bob Forrest, B.A. Hons; Economic and Social History (Queen’s University, Belfast). 112 pages, over 2000 surnames
This is the third volume in the Scots-Irish Origins series. This volume focuses on the historic city of Derry/Londonderry in the seventeenth century and makes available a number of valuable and unique sources for the period.
The following seventeenth century records are included in this volume for the city of Derry/Londonderry:-
- the 1619 Inquisition,
- 1622 Muster Roll
- 1628 Rent Roll
- 1630 Muster Roll (599 names)
- 1642 Muster Rolls (9 companies)
- 1654/6 Civil Survey, 1659 Census
- 1663 Hearth Money Roll
- as well as numerous miscellaneous records including; Corporation records (Governors, Mayors, Aldermen, Sheriffs), lists of merchants and seamen linked to the port of Derry, Gravestone Inscriptions from the seventeenth century, siege records, Summonister (court) records (1611-1670), Will indexes (1600-1700), original will abstracts, and a list of Derry voters from 1697.

Link to Purchase:  Scots-Irish Origins


By Bob Forrest, B.A Hons; Economic and Social History (Queen’s University, Belfast). 112 pages, over 2000Inhabitants of Londonderry before the Siege surnames.
This is the third volume in the Scots-Irish Origins Series. This volume focuses on the historic City of Derry/Londonderry in the seventeenth century and makes available a number of valuable and unique sources for the period.

Derry is set in a beautiful location having been built on sloping hills set against the backdrop of the Inishowen mountains at a curve on the river Foyle and is one of the longest, continually inhabited places in Ireland with a record of monastic settlement dating from 545A.D. ‘The Derrie’, or ‘the oak-grove’, was an island area situated on the Foyle and became a settlement of strategic importance but remained an isolated outpost until the late sixteenth century. Sir Henry Dowcra’s military expedition, which arrived in Lough Foyle in May 1600, at the height of the Nine Years War, was instrumental in paving the way for the plantation of Ulster that began only a few years later under James I. After Dowcra, the British stayed in the northwest and by the early seventeenth century Derry had become a frontier settlement at the heart of the Ulster Plantation scheme.

The city was renamed Londonderry reflecting the involvement of the London Companies in the plantation of the county of Coleraine (also renamed Londonderry), and one of their obligations was to build a city at the site of Derry. The new planned city had an historic military function and extant muster rolls exist for the city for 1622, 1630 and 1642 and give indication of Derry’s origins as a garrison town. The city survived two sieges and repulsed all attacks during the seventeenth century. It was the resilience of Derry that largely ensured the survival of the Ulster plantation in the seventeenth century.

The purpose of this work is to identify the families and people resident in Derry in the seventeenth century, especially in the period before the siege. The colony planted by Dowcra was predominantly English in character but during the reign of James I increasing numbers of Scots from surrounding areas such as Rathmelton and Raphoe (Donegal) crowded into the new town searching for work. Trade links with Scotland were strong especially with the ports on the western seaboard. By 1630 Derry was the largest settlement in Ulster and had a population of 500 adult males and was similar insize to Boston, which in 1640 had a population of 1,200. In 1637, the surveyor-general of customs noted that the Scots heavily outnumbered the English in Derry. The rapid growth of the Scottish colony was remarkable and this is reflected in the surnames in the hearth returns for the city and liberties in 1663. By 1700 Derry had a population of over two thousand and the most impressive town in Ulster with its walls and regular street plan. Commerce was central to the life of Londonderry, which became a busy shipping port and this volume gives evidence of maritime, mercantile and craft elements present in the city in the seventeenth century.

Mr. Forrest has utilized a wide range of sources for this publication: Burgh records in Scotland, House of Common’s Journals, Calendar of State Papers, Calendar of Treasury Books, and the records from the National Archives of Scotland and the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland in order to identify the inhabitants of Derry and with over 2000 surnames this volume gives comprehensive listing of the inhabitants of the city before the siege.

The following seventeenth century records are included in this volume for the city of Derry/Londonderry:-
- the 1619 Inquisition,
- 1622 Muster Roll
- 1628 Rent Roll
- 1630 Muster Roll (599 names)
- 1642 Muster Rolls (9 companies)
- 1654/6 Civil Survey, 1659 Census
- 1663 Hearth Money Roll
- as well as numerous miscellaneous records including; Corporation records (Governors, Mayors, Aldermen, Sheriffs), lists of merchants and seamen linked to the port of Derry, Gravestone Inscriptions from the seventeenth century, siege records, Summonister (court) records (1611-1670), Will indexes (1600-1700), original will abstracts, and a list of Derry voters from 1697.
The following surnames can be found in this book:
ABBOT, ACORNE, ADAIR, ADAM, ADAMS, ADDERTON, ADDISON, ADAIR, ADARE, ADERTON, ADMISTON, AIKEN, AKENHEAD, AKINE, ALCORNE, ALEXANDERS, ALL, ALLAN, ALLANE, ALLECEN, ALLEN, ALLESTER, ALLEXANDER, ALLINE, ALLINSON, ALLYSON, ALSEN, ALSON, ANDERSON, ANDERTON, ANDROS, ANDROSS, ANKOR, ANKTILL, APLEN, APLIN, APLINE, APPLETON, AP-RICHARDS, APTON, ARBUCKELL, ARBUCKLE, ARCHER, ARCHY, ARCKETILL, ARDOCK, ARKWRIGHT, ARMSTRONG, ARTHUR, ASBURY, ASH, ASHBRIG, ASHE, ASHBURY, ASHDONE, ASHE, ASTRY, ATCHESON, ATCHISONN, ATKIN, ATKINSON, AUBERRY, AUSTEN, AVERELL, BABINGTON, BACON, BAILEY, BAGENALL, BAGNAL, BAGGS, BAKER, BAKON, BAILY, BAIRD, BALE, BALER, BALIFF, BALL, BALLARK, BALLAS, BALER, BALRIGE, BAMBRIDGE, BANCKES, BANKES, BAR, BARR, BARBER, BARKER, BARNARD, BARNES, BARNET, BARNSLY, BARR, BARRINGTON, BARRY, BARTLET, BARTON, BARWICKE, BASILL, BASLY, BASTARD, BATE, BATEMAN, BAUX, BAXTER, BAYLEY, BAYLY, BAYLYE, BEAMES, BEARDE, BEATY, BEAUMONT, BEAURIGE, BECK, BECKE, BEGARD, BEGGE, BEGGS, BELL, BEN, BENDENE, BENDERMAN, BENNET, BENEY, BENNETT, BENSON, BERESFORD, BERKETT, BERKELY, BERRY, BETSON, BEYLANDS, BICKERSTAFF, BINDINS, BINGLEY, BINGLY, BIRD, BIREY, BIRNE, BIRNIE, BISHOPP, BITROW, BIVES, BLACK, BLACKBORNE, BLACKBURN, BLACKE, BLACKER, BLACKHORNE, BLACKWELL, BLACKWOOD, BLAIR, BLAND, BLANY, BLUNDELL, BLUNKET, BOGG, BOGGE, BOGGES, BOGGS, BOHANAN, BOID, BOOTH, BORES, BOUGHAN, BOURKE, BOWEN, BOWSER, BOWYER, BOYD, BOYDE, BOYLES, BOYNE, BRABAZON, BRADIN, BRADY, BRAGG, BRAMPTON, BRAMSON, BRAMSTONE, BRARESHILL, BRASIER, BRAZIER, BRELLAHAN, BRICE, BRIDERS, BRIDEMAN, BRIDGES, BRIGHTE, BRIERS, BRIGHT, BRISSON, BROME, BROOKE, BROOKES, BROOKS, BROOME, BROSTER, BROWN, BROWNE, BROWNING, BRUNETT, BRUCE, BRYLAND, BUBBY, BUCHANAN, BURDINS, BULL, BULLACK, BURDIST, BURGESS, BURK, BURKE, BURLEIGH, BURLY, BURNES, BURNESIDE, BURNETT, BURNEY, BURNSIDE, BURNSYD, BURRELL, BURTON, BUTLER, BUTTON, BYAR, BYARS, BYERS, BYRES, CADE, CAHAN, CAHANE, CAHOWNE, CAIRNES, CAIRNS, CALBREATH, CALISE, CALDWELL, CALHOUN, CALLWELL, CALVEILL, CALWELL, CAMBELL, CAMBLE, CAMEL, CAMELL, CAMPBELL, CAMPIAN, CAMPSEY, CAMPSIE, CAMSY, CANNING, CANWELL, CAPP, CARBUT, CARIDGE, CARLETON, CARLILL, CARMIHILL, CARNES, CARE, CAREY, CARNES, CARR, CARRIGAN, CARRIGEN, CARRINGTON, CARSELL, CARSWELL, CARTER, CARY, CARYE, CASELL, CASKEY, CASON, CASSRONE, CASTELL, CECIL, CHADDOCK, CHALMERS, CHAMBERS, CHAPMAN, CHAPTMAN, CHESAN, CHETWOOD, CHICHESTER, CHILDS, CHILES, CHRISTUELL, CHRISTWELL, CHRISTYE, CHURCH, CLANTON, CLAPONE, CLAPP, CLARE, CLARK, CLARKE, CLARKSON, CLARSON, CLAVE, CLAYDE, CLAYTON, CLEGG, CLEID, CLEMENCE, CLEMENT, CLEMENTS, CLENAGHAN, CLINTON, CLOYD, CLOYDE, CLUIG, CLYDE, CLYTON, COALE, COATCH, COCHERAN, COCHERANE, COCHRAN, COCHRANE, COCKAYNE, COCKBARNE, COCKE, COCKEN, COCKENS, COCKER, COCKRAN, COCKRANE, COCKS, COGHERAN, COGHERON, COHOUNE, COLE, COLHOUNE, COLLINS, COLUINE, CONINGHAM, CONINHAM, CONLAY, CONNINGHAM, CONNOCK, CONNOR, CONOHER, CONOLLY, CONYNGHAM, COOK, COOKE, COOMES, COOP, COOPER, COOTE, COOTES, COPE, CORMACK, CORNHILL, CORNWALL, CORRION, CORRY, COTESMER, COTMORE, COTTESMORE, COTTISMORE, COTYMORE, COURTNEY, COVAN, COWAN, COWEY, COWPER, COX, COYLE, CRAFORD, CRAFFORD, CRAG, CRAGE, CRAGG, CRAGHEAD, CRAIG, CRAIGE, CRAKSHANK, CRACKSHANESSE, CRANE, CRANEEN, CRAVAN, CRAVEEN, CRAVEN, CRAYFORD, CRAYTON, CRAWFFORDE, CRAWFORD, CRESWELL, CROASE, CROFTON, CROFTS, CROKETT, CROMIE, CROOKESHANKES, CROOKESHANKS, CROOK, CROOKS, CROOKSHANK, CROOKSHANKS, CROSER, CROSS, CROSTS, CROW, CROWTHER, CRUICKSHANK, CRUKSHANKS, CUIN, CUISTION, CULBERSON, CULILAND, CUMMELL, CUNINGHAM, CUNINGHAME, CUNNINGHAM, CUNSTALL, CURIE, CURINGHAM, CURLING, CURLINGE, CURRY, CUST, CUTBERTSON, CUTHBERTSON, DALLAWAY, DANE, DANIELL, DANIELSON, DANY, DANYE, DAUIS, DAUISSON, DAVEY, DAVIES, DAVENPORT, DAVIS, DAVISON, DAVY, DAVYES, DAWBY, DAWLEY, DAWNAM, DAWSON, DEAL, DEALE, DECON, DELAP, DELAPP, DE-LAVIE, DE-LAVIS, DENNISON, DENNEY, DENNY, DENSYNE, DEVENNY, DICKES, DIGGS, DILLION, DINN, DIXON, DOAKE, DOBBIN, DOBBS, DOBSON, DODDINGTON, DOGHIRTY, DOLLMAN, DOLLWAY, DONELLAN, DONELDSON, DONELLSONN, DONNELSOM, DONNELSON, DORAN, DORNE, DOUGALL, DOUGHARTY, DOUGHERTY, DOUGLAS, DOUGLASS, DOUGLESS, DOUL, DOWAY, DOWDALL, DOWELL, DOWEY, DOWGALL, DOWNE, DOWNEING, DOWNES, DOWNING, DRAPER, DRIVER, DROSTER, DRUMMOND, DRURY, DUCE, DUDLES, DUGLAS, DUGLEISH, DUGLISH, DULAP, DULAPP, DUMBAR, DUNBAR, DUNBARR, DUNCAN, DUNKAN, DUNKIN, DUN, DUNBAR, DUNBARR, DUNN, DURDOK, DUTTON, DYKES, DYLLAN, EADIE, EARLS, EDGEWORTH, EDMONDS, EDMONSTONE, EDWARD, EDWARDS, EIDEN, ELDER, ELKES, ELLICOCK, ELLINGSWORTH, ELLIOT, ELLIOTT, ELLIS, ELVIN, ENALLRE, ENCHE, ENGLISH, ENICKSON, ERSKINE, ERWIN, ERWINE, ERWYN, ESPIE, EVANS, EVERS, EVERY, EVIN, ELVINE, EWEING, EWIN, EWING, EWRYE, EYERS, FANE, FAR, FARALD, FARBASCO, FARBET, FARGISHILL, FARMER, FARMES, FARQUHAR, FARR, FAULCONER, FENUY, FERGISON, FERGUSON, FERGUSSONE, FERRIER, FERRON, FERRY, FFINCH, FFOLLIOT, FFLANELL, FFLEMINGE, FFRANCKLAND, FRANKLINN, FFULTON, FILSELL, FINCH, FINDLAY, FINLEY, FINNIE, FINNSTON, FISHER, FIXTER, FLAVEL, FLEMIN, FLEMING, FLEMINGE, FLETCHER, FLEUILL, FOKER, FOLIOT, FOLLIOT, FOLLIOTT, FORGISSON, FORRESTER, FORSTER, FORSYTH, FORTESCUE, FORTISCUE, FORWARD, FOSTER, FOWELL, FOWLER, FOX, FOXLEY, FRAMPTON, FRAZIER, FREEBORNE, FREEMAN, FREMAN, FREN, FRENCH, FREWEN, FRIXTER, FRONDE, FUISH, FULLER, FULLERTON, FULLERTONN, FULTON, FUSHEY, FYNLEY, FYNLY, GAGE, GAINE, GAIT, GAJE, GALBEATH, GALBRAETH, GALBRAITH, GALLAGHER, GALLAUGHER, GALLOHER, GALTWORTH, GAMBELL, GAMBLE, GANNE, GARDELL, GARDENER, GARDINER, GARDNER, GARNET, GARY, GATE, GATES, GAULT, GAW, GAWLIAM, GAY, GEERING, GELVERY, GENIONS, GEORGE, GEVEN, GEYMES, GIBBON, GIBBS, GIBSON, GIBSONN, GIFFIN, GIFFINE, GIFFORD, GIFFORE, GIFFORDE, GILCHRIST, GILES, GILL, GILLASPY, GILKSONN, GILLER, GILLESPIE, GILLESPY, GILLIERE, GILLPATRICKE, GILLSONN, GILPATRICK, GILSONE, GIMBLE, GLADSTANES, GLASGOW, GLENN, GLOWRE, GLOVER, GOBURNE, GODBOLD, GODFREY, GODMAN, GOEBRETH, GOLDSMITH, GOLTERYE, GOODFELLOW, GOODWIN, GOODYEER, GOOSE, GORDON, GORE, GORGE, GORGES, GORMAN, GOTERY, GOTTERY, GOWEN, GRACE, GRAIDY, GRAFT, GRAHAM, GRAHAME, GRAHAMES, GRASSE, GRAUE, GRAVE, GRAVELL, GRAY, GRAYE, GREDINE, GREEN, GREENLEES, GREG, GREGG, GREGOR, GREHAMES, GRENE, GREYME, GRIFFE, GRIFFEN, GRIFFIN, GRIFFINE, GRIFFITH, GRIGSON, GRIMES, GRINSTEED, GRISKINGS, GRODYE, GROERTYE, GROFVENOR, GROVE, GROVES, GRYER, GRYMES, GUGHTREDGE, GUINE, GUNTER, GUTHERY, GUTHRYE, GUY, GWINE, GWYNN, GYLES, GYLLES, HAILE, HAIRE, HAIRES, HAIRS, HALL, HALLE, HALLEY, HALSHTON, HALTON, HAMAN, HAMBLETON, HAMEL, HAMELL, HAMIL, HAMILL, HAMILTON, HAMILTONN, HAMMILTON, HAMMILTOUNE, HAMMON, HAMMOND, HAMOND, HANAH, HANDASYDE, HANCOCK, HANDCOCK, HANDFORD, HANDLINGE, HANFORD, HANMER, HANKES, HANKOLY, HANNA, HANNOCK, HARCOUGH, HARDMAN, HARE, HARETOP, HARISON, HARISONE, HAROLL, HARPER, HARRAWAY, HARRINGTON, HARRISON, HARRYE, HART, HARTE, HARTT, HARTWELL, HARVEY, HARVYE, HARYSON, HARWOD, HASELLWOOD, HASTON, HAUGTEN, HAWARD, HAWKE, HAWKES, HAWKINS, HAY, HAYE, HAYDEN, HAYRE, HEA, HEARD, HEATH, HEATLYE, HEATON, HEGGARD, HEMSWORTH, HEMYN, HEARD, HEATH, HENDER, HENDERSON, HENDMAN, HENRICK, HENRY, HENRYE, HEPBOURNE, HEPBURNE, HERD, HERRIS, HERY, HEWAT, HEWESTON, HEYE, HILHOUSE, HILL, HILLE, HILLHOUSE, HINCKSONE, HINDEMAN, HINDMAN, HINKESON, HINSON, HOBSON, HOBSONN, HODGKINS, HOGG, HOLDING, HOLLAND, HOLMES, HOME, HOMESONN, HONE, HONEY, HOODE, HOPKINS, HOPPON, HORN, HOROSTON, HOSLOCKE, HOUGHTON, HOULE, HOUSE, HOUSELOCK, HOUSTON, HOUSTONE, HOUSTONN, HOW, HOWE, HOWELL, HOWARD, HOWESON, HOWESONN, HOWTON, HOYLE, HUCHESON, HUDCEN, HUDSON, HUDSONN, HUES, HUEY, HUFTON, HUGHES, HULLS, HULLYE, HUMBESTONE, HUMES, HUNT, HUNTER, HUNTERHURD, HUSCOCK, HURST, HUSTON, HUSTONE, HUTCHISONN, HUTCHON, HUTSON, HUSTONE, HUTTON, HYNDMAN, HYNES, HYNN, INCHE, INGLIS, ISLEN, IRISH, IRWIN, IRWYN, JACKARD, JACKET, JACKSON, JACKSONN, JACON, JAMESON, JAMISON, JEFFRYS, JEFFS, JEMMET, JENKIN, JENKINE, JENKINES, JENNINGS, JENNINS, JENNY, JEREMY, JOANES, JOHNES, JOHNSON, JOHNSTON, JOHNSTONE, JONES, JORDAN, JOURDEM, JOURDAN, JOURDEN, KADWALLADER, KANAN, KANE, KANNE, KARR, KEAN, KEARNS, KEAWORTH, KEELAND, KEENE, KEILE, KELLY, KELLYE, KENDRICK, KENEDYE, KENNEDY, KENNY, KENRICK, KENWOOD, KER, KERBYE, KERKE, KERNES, KERR, KETLEBYE, KEYES, KEYLE, KEYMYN, KEYS, KIDEL, KILL, KILNER, KILPATRICK, KINASTON, KING, KINGE, KINGSTON, KINKAIDE, KINKEAD, KINNISTON, KIRBY, KIRK, KITCHINE, KITWALLADER, KNEALAND, KNEELAND, KNELAN, KNELAND, KNIGHT, KNOBBS, KNOBS, KNOCKS, KNOTT, KNOWELS, KNOWLES, KNOX, KYLE, KYLL, KYLLE, KYNASTON, KYNG, LABAL, LABE, LACI, LAMAN, LAMKIN, LANCE, LANE, LANG, LANGEMORE, LANGFORDE, LANGMORE, LANGTON, LAPSLEY, LARGE, LASON, LATHAM, LATHEM, LATHUM, LATHUN, LAULIN, LAULY, LAUTY, LAVEY, LAWE, LAWRENCE, LAWRY, LAWSON, LAWSONN, LAWTIE, LAWTON, LAYON, LEA, LEACH, LEACHEN, LEAKE, LECKY, LEAP, LESTON, LEATHEM, LECKIE, LECKY, LEDIAT, LEE, LENEN, LENOX, LENNOX, LENRY, LERGE, LESLIE, LESLY, LESTON, LEWIS, LEY, LIDSUM, LINDSAY, LINDESAY, LINDSEY, LINDSEYE, LINNE, LITROW, LOGAN, LOGG, LOGGAN, LONE, LONG, LONGE, LOUGH, LOUGHEAD, LOUTHER, LOW, LOWRIE, LOWRY, LOWTHER, LUCAS, LUNDIE, LUNDY, LYN, LYNDSAY, LYNDSIE, LYNN, LYNNE, LYNTON, LYON, MACBELLANE, MACCABRID, MACCHIRKSON, MACCLAIE, MACCLELAND, MACCLOUKES, MACCONNELL, MACCORKILL, MACCORRIGAN, MACCREE, MACGENNLY, MACGORE, MACGORMLEY, MACGROGERTY, MACGRORTY, MACGOWNE, MACK, MACKAY, MACKEY, MACILCONNEL, MACKENNLIE, MACKENZIE, MACKIE, MACKILDUFF, MACKILLNEY, MACKINNEY, MACKINNY, MACLAGHLIN, MACLCONNEL, MACKMATH, MACKRERY, MACKRONE, MACQUIGLEY, MACLOGHLIN, MACNICHOL, MACCOLLOGH, MACONAHYE, MACOWELL, MACPHETRIX, MACSWINE, MACAULY, MACWARD, MADDAN, MADER, MADERELL, MADERNELL, MADLEY, MADOX, MAGEE, MAGHLIN, MAGOWEN, MAGOWNE, MAINE, MAIOR, MAIRE, MAJOR, MAKAYE, MAKEE, MAKEIR, MAKENNIS, MAKEYE, MAKIM, MAKING, MAKKAY, MAKLANE, MALCOLLUM, MANBY, MANESFIELD, MANESOOTH, MANSFIELD, MANSON, MARCEY, MARDOCK, MARE, MAROW, MARROW, MARSDEN, MARSH, MARSHALL, MARSTONE, MARTIALL, MARTIN, MARTINE, MASON, MASTERS, MATGINSEY, MATHEW, MATHEWES, MATHREWES, MATTHRO, MATIRE, MAULAN, MAXFIELD, MAXWELL, MAY, MAYOR, McARTAN, McBOYLE, McBREAN, McCACLES, McCALLAN, McCAMUL, McCAMUS, McCAN, McCARKAN, McCARMICK, McCARRUNGALL, McCARTHY, McCAVERE, McCAWLEY, McCAY, McCARRELL, McCLELLAND, McCLELLANY, McCLENAGHAN, McCOLE, McCOLLON, McCOMBE, McCONNELL, McCONOGHIE, McCORBE, McCORDALL, McCORMICK, McCOWAN, McCRACKEN, McCREE, McCULLOCH, McCULLOGH, McCUTCHEN, McCUTCHEON, McFFARLAN, MACFETRIDGE, McGEE, McGIMPSY, McGILL, McGILLBREEDY, McGILLIGAN, McGLOON, McGOWEN, McGUNN, McILLCOYLL, McILDUE, McILLDUFFE, McILTEGART, McKANLY, McKEE, McKEENE, McKENLEN, McKENLY, McKENNEY, McKENNY, McKER, McKEROGE, McKEY, McKEYNE, McKILCOME, McKILCRONE, McKILDUFFE, McKILTIRE, McKINNILEY, McKNOB, McLANLIN, McLEALAND, McLENTOG, McLOCHIN, McLOCKIN, McLOGHLIN, McLORNANE, McMAISTER, McMATH, McMISH, McMURRIN, McNARE, McNEAL, McNICOLL, McNILL, McROARTY, McRUDEN, McRUTTER, McSHADDEN, McSWINE, McWALLER, McWILLY, MEARE, MEDCALFE, MELL, MERCER, MERSTOUN, MERVYN, MERYWEATHER, MESSENGER, METLAND, MICHAEL, MICHELBURN, MICHELL, MILL, MILLER, MILLES, MITCHEL, MODERWELL, MOGRIDGE, MOLDRAGE, MOLLCHELLIN, MOLLINE, MONCREIFE, MONCRIEF, MONCRIEFF, MONCRIFF, MONKTON, MONNELL, MONRO, MONROE, MONROW, MONSERRANCE, MONT, MONTGOMERY, MONTGOMMERY, MOOR, MOORE, MOOREHEAD, MOOTE, MORDOCK, MORDOCKE, MORE, MORGAN, MORGES, MORE, MORGIN, MORISON, MORRICE, MORRIS, MORRISON, MORRISONN, MORROW, MORTHWAN, MOSSOM, MOULES, MOUNT, MOUSEROUN, MULHOLLAND, MULLAN, MUNDAY, MUNGOUMERYE, MUNNDLY, MUNNELLY, MUNROE, MURDOCK, MURE, MURPHETT, MURRAY, MURREY, MUTTERWELL, NAPPER, NAUGHTLEY, NEALE, NEALSON, NEELY, NEESBIT, NEILE, NEILSON, NELLAURE, NENMO, NESBIT, NESBITT, NESMITH, NEVILL, NEVILLE, NEVIN, NEWBURGH, NEWCOMB, NEWCOMEN, NEWEN, NEWMAN, NEWTON, NEWTOWN, NEWTOWNE, NICHOLS, NICHOLSON, NICHOLSONE, NICOLLSON, NIGHTINGALE, NILLEN, NISBET, NIXON, NOBLE, NORDE, NORMAN, NORRIS, NORY, NOTTRICE, NUTT, OBERY, O’BOWELL, O’BOYD, OBRE, O’BRELY, OBREY, O’BROLY, O’BYYNE, O’CANE, O’CAHAN, O’CAHN, O’CANAN, O’CANE, O’CANNAN, O’CATHAN, O’CHANE, O’CREVELLIN, O’CURRAN, O’DAYRE, O’DERMONT, O’DERRY, O’DEVENNY, O’DOGHERTIE, O’DOGHERTY, O’DOHERTY, O’DOHERTYE, O’DONNELL, O’DOWE, O’DREY, O’DURRYE, O’FENEY, O’GALLOGHER, O’GALLOHER, OGLE, O’GORMAN, O’GOWN, O’HAGARTIE, O’HAGARTY, O’HALLEY, O’HARKAN, O’HARLEY, O’HAVELAND, O’HEGARTIE, O’HEGARTY, O’HENRY, O’KEAN, O’KELLY, O’KELLEY, O’KINE, O’LAFFERTY, O’LANCARIE, O’LANIE, O’LASHEYE, O’LASHYE, O’LENERICK, O’LAULIN, O’LECKYE, OLFARDS, OLFEARD, OLFERT, O’LINE, O’LINSHANAN, O’MAULEY, O’MULLAN, O’NEAL, O’NEALE, O’NEIL, O’QUIGLEY, O’QUSTION, ORE, O’REALL, O’REGONE, ORNEAL, ORNELL, ORRELL, O’RELY, O’RENE, O’REYNE, ORMSBY, ORNOYLE, ORR, O’RODDEN, O’RYLIE, OSBORN, OSBURN, OSBORNE, OSBOURNE, O’SHEALE, O’SHEIL, O’SHENE, O’SHENKYE, O’SHERINE, O’SREAN, O’STEENE, O’STINE, O’STREENE, O’TAMENNY, O’TOY, OWENS, OWINS, PACKER, PACY, PAINE, PALMER, PARDEN, PAREY, PARKE, PARKER, PARKE, PARKER, PARKES, PARKS, PARSEY, PARSONS, PARTLET, PASLEY, PASSY, PATERSON, PATSHALL, PATSON, PATT, PATTERSON, PATTESHALL, PATY, PATYN, PAWLETT, PAYNTER, PERCY, PEAREMAN, PEARMAN, PEARSE, PEIRMON, PEIRSON, PERCEE, PENMAN, PEOPLES, PERPOYNT, PERRY, PETFEILD, PETT, PHETIS, PHILIPS, PHILLIPS, PICKARD, PICKIN, PIEMONT, PIERCE, PIERSON, PIGOT, PIGOTT, PILOT, PINKERTONN, PIOTT, PIREY, PIT, PITS, PITT, PITTS, PLATT, PLOTT, PLUNKET, PLUNKETT, POAGE, POAKE, POCK, POCKE, POGE, POKE, POLKE, POLLOCK, PONSONBY, POOK, POOKE, POOLIE, POOLE, PORTER, POTTS, POULTENEY, POULTON, POWELL, POWER, PREINT, PRENT, PRICE, PRIDION, PRIGEON, PRITTIE, PRITTY, PROPTER, PRYCE, PURDIE, PURDON, PUSTYE, QUALANE, QUANTAIN, QUIGGE, QUIGLEYE, QUIGLY, QUINTON, RABB, RAGSTON, RAILEY, RAIMAR, RAIMONDE, RAINEY, RAKNE, RAMESE, RAMIR, RAMSAY, RAMSEY, RAMSEYE, RANALDS, RANDALE, RANDLE, RANDOLL, RANICK, RANKEN, RANKIN, RANKINE, RANNELL, RANNELLS, RATCLIFFE, RAVEN, RAWDON, RAY, RAYE, RAYMON, RAYSDALE, REA, READ, READALL, READE, REALLY, REDDALL, REDGATE, REEDE, REIVES, RENEY, REYNOLDS, RICHARDE, RICHARDS, RICHARDSON, RICHARDSONN, RICE, RICHE, RICHER, RICHERSON, RICHEY, RICKEARDS, RICHMAN, RIDDAL, RIDDELL, RIDLEY, RILE, RINDE, RIPLEY, RISE, ROBACK, ROBERTON, ROBB, ROBENSON, ROBERT, ROBERTES, ROBERTS, ROBERTSON, ROBINS, ROBINSON, ROBINSONE, ROBISON, ROCHE, RODGER, RODGERS, ROE, ROES, ROGER, ROGERS, ROLE, ROOIN, ROOTELIDGE, ROSE, ROSS, ROSSAL, ROSSE, ROWAN, ROWAT, ROWE, ROWLEY, ROYD, ROYDE, ROYLY, RUDD, RUDDALL, RUDDEN, RUDDOCK, RUDE, RUDLE, RUE, RULE, RUSSELL, RUST, RUTTER, RYFORD, SACKFEILD, SADLER, SADOCK, SAMPSON, SAMPSONE, SAMSON, SANDELAM, SANDERS, SANDERSON, SANDYES, SANKEY, SAUNDERSON, SAVAGE, SCAMMON, SCOLLERS, SCOT, SCOTT, SCRIMGEOUR, SCRIMSEOUR, SEAR, SEARES, SEATON, SEMPILL, SEMPLE, SEYNTLOWE, SHANNON, SHARER, SHARPE, SHAW, SHAWE, SHELCROSS, SHELDON, SHELSHELTONN, SHERBY, SHERHARD, SHERINGTON, SHERLEY, SHERRARD, SHERRINGTON, SHERWOOD, SHEVINGTON, SHIRLOCK, SHOBURNE, SHORT, SHORTIDGE, SHREIFFE, SHURSBY, SIDBERT, SIDENHAM, SILL, SIMCOKE, SIMKINS, SIMPLE, SIMPSON, SIMS, SIMSON, SINCLAIR, SKAMON, SKEFFINGTON, SKELTON, SKERLET, SKEVINGTON, SKIFFINGTON, SKINER, SKINNER, SKIPTON, SKIPTONN, SKOT, SKYNNER, SLAMMON, SLATTER, SLATER, SLAUGHTER, SLEMON, SLOANE, SLONE, SLUANE SLURGEN, SMELLY, SMETY, SMITH, SMYTH, SMYTHE, SOLLERS, SOUTHERY, SPAN, SPARKES, SPARKS, SPEARE, SPENCER, SPIKE, SPREWELL, SPRINGHAN, SPROUSE, SPRUEL, SQUIRE, SQUIRL, STANHOPP, STANLEY, STANSBY, STAPLES, STARRET, STAYNE, STEEL, STEELE, STEENSON, STEILE, STENSON, STENSONN, STENSONNE, STERLINGE, STEVENSON, STEVSON, STEWARD, STEWART, STERLING, STEYNINGS, STILES, STILLYE, STINNSON, STINSON, STOCK, STOKKES, STOTESBURY, STRABRICK, STRABRIDG, STRANGE, STRINGER, STROBRIDGE, STRONG, STROUD, STUART, STUDDALL, STYNSON, SUTTON, SWAN, SWEATENHAM, SWEETNAM, SWOORLEY, SWYNE, SYD, SYMKINS, SYMONDS, SYMPSON, TACKETT, TAILZIOR, TAIRE, TALLEN, TALLON, TARBUTT, TARE, TARLETON, TASH, TATHE, TAYLOR, TEMPLE, TEMPLETINTON, TERRE, TERRY, THOMAS, THOMPSON, THOMSON, THORNTON, THORPE, TIFFANY, TINNEY, TOLLER, TOMKINS, TOMPSON, TOMPSONN, TOMSON, TOMSONE, TOOCKEY, TOPINE, TORESYTH, TOUCH, TOWERS, TOWNHAM, TOWNSEND, TOXONE, TOYDEN, TRACEY, TRACY, TRAICY, TRAPE, TREVERSE, TREVONE, TREVOR, TROWAN, TRUEMAN, TRUMAN, TUBMAN, TUCKER, TUCKEY, TURBAT, TURBET, TURBETT, TURNER, TYSE, UINSON, UPTON, VADELEY, VAIL, VALE, VAUDRY, VAUGHAN, VEASIE, VEASOY, VENABLES, VERETT, VERNOR, WADEN, WALDER, WALKER, WALL, WALLACE, WALLAS, WALLICE, WALLY, WALSH, WALTERS, WALTHAM, WANDERFORD, WARDE, WARDEN, WARDNER, WARDREN, WARNER, WARNET, WARREN, WASSEN, WASTLE, WATMOUTH, WATS, WATSEMON, WATSON, WATSONN, WATSONNE, WATT, WATTS, WAYNEMAN, WEBB, WEEKS, WEIR, WELL, WELLINGTON, WELLS, WELSH, WENDESFORD, WENNYS, WELSH, WESBY, WESCOINGE, WESGATE, WESSCOAT, WEST, WESTCOTE, WESTE, WESTGATE, WESTOCK, WESTON, WETHEROWE, WHALEY, WHARON, WHEADON, WHISTLER, WHITE, WHITEWELL, WHITLOE, WHITNEY, WHITTAKERS, WHITTLE, WHITWELL, WHYTE, WIGTOWN, WILDE, WILDRAGE, WILKINE, WILKINS, WILKINSON, WILL, WILLEMSON, WILLAGE, WILLIAM, WILLIAMS, WILLIAMSON, WILLINGTON, WILLIS, WILLSON, WILLSONE, WILLSONN, WILLYE, WILSON, WILSOUN, WINSLOW, WITAKER, WOLDREDG, WOLRIDGE, WOOD, WOODS, WOODSIDES, WOOL, WOOLL, WOOLDNEY, WOODES, WOODROSE, WOOLLEY, WOORK, WORKMAN, WRAY, WRAYE, WRIGHT, WURRAL, WYLDE, YALE, YARBAR, YARBOROY, YARBORROWE, YERBOREY, YORKE, YONGE, YOUNG, YOUNGE, ZACHARY